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All of our Roots (History of past events) run deep in the hills of: Jamacia, Haiti, Cuba, Porto Rico, Dominican Repub, (known as the Middle Passage during the Slave Trade times..



If we back track in time, we would find that the Slave Trade placed our family members on these Islands... Known as The Middle Passage to the sailors of the ships, who sailed to Africa to pick up cargo... The people of these Islands are our blood families, Our Aunts, Uncles, and so on... Some remember, and others don't...



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In the thirty years leading up to the Civil War, tensions in the country mounted over the issue of slavery. By 1830, there were more than 2 million slaves in the United States, worth over a billion dollars (compared to annual federal revenues of less than 25 million). And their numbers were growing. During the 1830s alone, the migration of slaves to the lower South increased the slave population in Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Florida and Arkansas from 530,404 to 943,881.

Even with this enormous expansion of slavery, 75 percent of white southerners did not own slaves. Of those who did, the vast majority owned no more than 20. The bulk of the enormous wealth produced by slave-grown cotton rested in the hands of a few planters. A significant portion of the Northern industrial economy rested on slave-grown cotton as well, and this contributed to northerners' hostility to the abolitionist movement.

The abolitionists gained momentum in this period, however. Freed and escaped slaves spread their stories through publications and speeches at local and national antislavery meetings. As the country expanded westward to Kansas and Nebraska, Texas, New Mexico and California, pushing out Native Americans and Mexicans, the question of whether slavery should exist in the new territories fueled the growing divisions in the nation.

Strong differences of opinion over the slavery question led to violent clashes, culminating in the raid on Harpers Ferry. After the election of President Lincoln in 1860, seven southern states seceded and Civil War broke out, followed by four years of bloody fighting and the loss of 617,000 American lives. The Union survived, however, and with the end of the war in 1865, long after the Emancipation Proclamation had pronounced slaves in seceded lands free, all African Americans finally emerged from their 250 years of bondage into their freedom as citizens of the United States of America.



Next: Antebellum Slavery




Map "Rollover" Information


The Southeast:

1830s: Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act forcibly removes five Indian nations from the lower South to less desirable land in the West, thus opening roughly 25 million acres to cotton cultivation.



Washington D.C.:

1850s: The nation's capital is a center of the domestic slave trade; many lawmakers were slaveholders. Slavery is not abolished in Washington, D.C. until 1862.



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:

1838: The Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, in Philadelphia, is cut short by a rioting mob that stones the women as they leave arm-in-arm and then sets fire to Pennsylvania Hall.



Texas:

1845: Slaveholding Texas is annexed into the United States, sparking the Mexican War. By 1848, Mexico cedes more than half of its territory to the U.S., including New Mexico and California in addition to Texas.



California:

1850: Its population swelled by the recent Gold Rush, California enters the Union as a free state. In return, slaveholders in the South are given a stringent Fugitive Slave Law for the recapture of runaways.



Nebraska Territory:

1854: The Kansas-Nebraska act divides the Nebraska Territory in two, and soon proslavery and antislavery proponents come head-to-head in a fight over Kansas.



Boston, Massachusetts:

1854: When escaped slave Anthony Burns is captured in Boston under Fugitive Slave Law, a huge protest ensues.



Savannah, Georgia:

1859: 429 slaves belonging to Pierce Butler are auctioned off in Savannah in the largest slave sale in U.S. history.



Harpers Ferry, (W) Virginia:

1859: Militant abolitionist John Brown's raid on the Federal Arsenal in order to arm slaves in a revolt ends in bloodshed and defeat.



Charleston, South Carolina:

1861: South Carolina's attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, and Lincoln's subsequent defense, mark the beginning of the Civil War.



Confederate States:

1863: The Emancipation Proclamation ends slavery in the Confederacy on January 1, 1863, but many slaves are not freed until the end of the war in 1865.

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Ganja (Marijuana) is considered the "wisdom weed" by Rastafarians, as its use helps one to gain wisdom. Rastafarians use it as a part of a religious rite and as a means of getting closer to their inner spiritual self, Jah (God) and Creation.

Ganja is also seen by Rastafarians as the herb of life mentioned in the Bible. Rastafarians use of ganja is justified by the following Psalms 104:14 that says, "He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle and herb for the service of man, that he may bring forth food out of the earth." Rastafarians also say it was found growing at the grave of King Solomon in the Bible.

Rastafarian consume it through smoking and eating (not recomended). The smoking of Ganja is a part of a religious ritual. When there is a large "reasoning" gathering of Rastafarians, a Chalice, which is a large smoking pipe, may be passed around and smoked. This is similar to the passing around of a communion cup by some Christian denominations. These gatherings are also called Nyahbinghi (also the name of a Rastafarian sect: Theocratic Priesthood and Livity Order of Nyahbinghi).

True Rastafarians do not smoke cigarettes as it is seen as un-natural and dangerous to one's health. Marijuana is not the only plant or herb used by Rastafarians. They use a wide variety of herbs, plants for medicinal and dietary purposes, however, ganja is the most popular.

Rastafarians Gather in Jamaica for Summit

KINGSTON, Jamaica (AP)--Hundreds of dreadlocked Rastafarians gathered in Jamaica's capital Wednesday to talk about the future of their faith, including how more followers can be repatriated to Africa and overcoming economic and social discrimination.

Rastas from the Caribbean, the United States, Europe and Africa gathered for the weeklong meeting in Kingston, where reggae artists like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh gave the religion a world stage in the 1970s through songs promoting peace, nonviolence, legal marijuana and ``one love.''

Trevor Stewart, a leader from the Bobo Ashanti sect, said the conference will discuss the Rastafarian faith and trying to end global conflict.

``You can't rule the world with vigor and guns and bullets. It's love that rules the world,'' Stewart said.

Fueled by anger over the colonial oppression of blacks, Rastafarianism emerged in Jamaica during the 1930s and spread throughout the Caribbean. Followers practice a strict oneness with nature, eating only certain foods and growing their hair into long strands called dreadlocks.

``Everywhere in the world, the movement means liberation,'' said professor Rex Nettleford, a social scientist who is vice chancellor of the University of the West Indies.

About 700,000 people practice the faith worldwide, with most of them among Jamaica's 2.6 million people. There are about a dozen sects differing in the degree of their adherence to the religion's doctrines.

Jamaican Rastas say they still endure discrimination in the birthplace of the religion, maintaining they are looked down upon for their dreadlocks and ritual use of marijuana, or ganja.

``People always associate us with ganja, but that's not what we're all about,'' Makeda Hannah said. ``We have to educate people and tell that we're about peace and togetherness and family.''

Others accused government and business leaders of denying them jobs while exploiting Rastafarian images for commercial gain.

For example, they said Jamaican travel promotions entice tourists with smiling, dreadlocked locals on beaches, even though few Rastas work in hotels or the service industry.

``It's a form of terrorism,'' Ras Astor Black said. ``They're exploiting an indigenous group to make money while our people suffer.''

Jamaican Prime Minister P.J. Patterson declined an invitation to speak at the conference because of a scheduling conflict, his office said.

Instead, he sent Information Minister Burchell Whiteman, who said Rastas have created ``a unique psychological space for people in the Caribbean struggling under colonialism.''

A prominent issue on this year's agenda is repatriation to Africa, a key tenet of Rastafarianism. Some followers worship the late Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie--even though he was a despot in his native land--and believe returning to Africa would complete the cycle broken by slavery.

Last year, Rastas in Jamaica, a former British colony, unsuccessfully petitioned England's Queen Elizabeth II for free transportation to Africa.

One Rasta not interested in that trek is Yvonne Douglas 55, of Red Hill, England, who is studying in Jamaica.

Douglas said she was drawn to the faith 11 years ago to achieve a purer lifestyle, not a cultural identity.

``It's not about back to Africa. It's about protest and looking after the world and making it a better place for our children,'' Douglas said. ``Rastafari has shown me how to value life.''

Rasta forms the base of reggae music, the vehicle that artists such as Bob Marley used to spread Rasta thought all over the world. This indigenous music grew from ska, which had elements of American R&B and Caribbean styles. It also drew from folk music, Pocomania church music, Jonkanoo fife and drum bands, fertility rituals, adaptations of quadrilles, plantation work songs, and a form called mento. Nyahbingi is the purest form of music played at Rasta meetings or grounations. It uses three hand drums of different sizes, the bass, the funde and the repeater. (An archetypal example of nyahbingi is the three LP set from Count Ossie and the Mystic Revelation of Rastafari.) "Roots" reggae explores the themes of the suffering of ghetto dwellers, slavery in Babylon, Haile Selassie as a living deity, and the hoped-for return to Africa.

After Jamaica's independence in 1962, the lack of political improvement and the Black Power movement in the U.S. led to a big Rasta resurgence. In 1964 the body of Marcus Garvey was returned from England for reburial in his homeland. In mid-60s reggae evolved a slower and cooler mode called rocksteady which shifted emphasis to bass and drums. In the late Sixties, Haile Selassie visited the island. Peter Tosh's "Rasta Shook Them Up" commemorated this major event. The fact that the emperor presented him with a walking stick, helped Michael Manley get elected. Manley's term in office started with wide support from Rasta musicians, though his leadership later brought disillusionment. "He Who Feels It Knows It" was one of the first recordings to use the phrase "I & I," which expresses unity between man and God. Ras Michael and the Sons of Negus rec orded such forthright Rasta statements as "Ethiopian National Anthem."

In 1969, Burning Spear's debut album included the exhortation to "Chant Down Babylon". From other artists in the early Seventies came such songs as "Conquering Lion," "Deliver Us," "Rasta Never Fails," and "Africa is Paradise." By 1975, Rastafarian chants were increasingly heard on records and the Wailers were in dreadlocks. With the albums and , Bob Marley became Jamaica's first international superstar. With a population of only two million, the island nation has sent into the world more than 100,000 reggae records over four decades.

Although we live in the midst of spiritual strife, even seemingly in the times described in the book of Revelations, Rasta is not about converting people. Although based on the Ethiopian Orthodox church, Rasta is not a church with an official doctrine, but a belief system that concerns spiritual social and historical matters. Some Rastafarians cut their hair and don't use ganga. Beliefs may include not eating salt, or things that grow under the earth or that need to be killed. Some Rasta followers won't sleep in a house. Adherents of Ites culture find the Almighty within all men, not Haile Selassie in particular. The Bobo dread wears his locks in a turban and carries a broom to signify his own cleanliness. There are Rasta women, but you don't see them around so much because they are very home and family-centered.

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1. The Spirit of Resistance


Jamaica is an islan', but is not I lan'

In this beautiful play on words, Joe Ruglass, the poet, folk-song composer and flutist who has for years played with the Mystic Revelation of Rastafari, begins his poem that expresses the Rastafari rejection of Jamaica as homeland and their yearning for repatriation.


The Rastafari ever since the movement's rise in the early 1930s have held to the belief that they and all Africans in the diaspora are but exiles in "Babylon," destined to be delivered out of captivity by a return to "Zion," that is, Africa, the land of our ancestors, or Ethiopia, the seat of Jah, Ras Tafari himself, Emperor Haile Selassie's precoronation name. Repatriation is one of the cornerstones of Rastafari belief The fact that the majority of Jamaicans, including most of those who migrate, regard Jamaica as their home might make the position of Joe Ruglass and the other tens of thousands of the Rastafari seem very sectarian. The truth is, however, that the doctrine of repatriation is kindred to a lineage of ideas and forms of action four hundred years old. They arose first in response to European slavery and then, following emancipation, in response to the system of social, cultural, and economic oppression on which modern Jamaica was built.


2. The Uprooting

When asked what Jamaica looked like, Columbus is said to have crumpled a piece of paper in his hand to dramatize the fact that deep valleys and gorges, steep hills, and mountains account for over 70 percent of the land surface. On these lands today, the very worst for any sort of agriculture, lives the peasant population.

The majority of the early Rastafarians came from the landless and small cultivator class of peasants. Not all of my informants could give a precise idea of the amount of land their parents owned or rented, but of those who could, eleven fell into the 0 to 4 acres category, three into the 5 to 9, and three into the 10 and greater.

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In 1930 in Ethiopia, Ras Tafari Makonnen was crowned King of Kings and Lord of Lords with the throne-name Haile Selassie the First and a new chapter in the struggle, one with religious connotations, was opened. God was finally real and the Christian doctrine was no longer the monopoly of white missionaries with headquarters in Rome. The bible was studied and any reference to Ethiopia took on added significance.

Ethiopia, being attacked by Italy at the start of the second world war galvanized interest and concern in the struggle of good over evil. During this period, the Ethiopian World Federation was formed in the United States of America under the guidance of the Emperor Haile Selassie the First, to unite the support for the restoration of Ethiopia's sovereignty. After the war, and the defeat of Italy, the Emperor showed his appreciation by donating land at Shashamane, to anyone of African descent in the west who wanted to return to the mother-land. Time, however, was creating Africans with various aspirations. New generations were producing new societies of Africans in the West.

Independent nations were beginning to form and black majority rule was imminent. In Jamaica, the reverence of Emperor Haile Selassie continued to create distinguishable movements, such as Nyabinghi, the Ethiopian National Congress or Bobo dreads, the Twelve Tribes of Israel.

The Twelve Tribes of Israel, founded by the Prophet Gad, has added another dimension in the liberation movement, to include liberation for all races through the teaching of the bible, and the acceptance of Jesus Christ. Membership is not limited, but inclusive. By identifying the spiritual sons of Jacob and finding truth for oneself through reading the bible "a chapter a day", man can find salvation. The divine lineage continues through the Ethiopian Monarchy, the seed of David, of which it is said, "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from beneath his feet, until Shiloh comes and unto Him will be the gathering of the people."

To Rastafarians, Selassie was much more than just a political leader; Rasta theology centered on the divinity of Selassie as a living manifestation of Jah, the all-knowing and all-loving God. To Rastafarians, the story told by the Old Testament pertains to black Africans who descend from Abraham and Jacob. But white Christians altered this fact to keep Africans in a substandard position. Rastafarians refer to this oppression as "Babylon", with obvious references to a state of slavery and cultural tyranny that all blacks must overcome. To greater represent the truth, Rasta rejects the Bible used by most Christians, opting instead for a "black man's Bible" known as the Holy Piby.

Rastafarians have developed a unique language and outward appearance, best exemplified by the dreadlock Hairstyle. Rastafarians also have placed a high value on smoking marijuana (ganja), which is used for meditation and to reflect completely on the word of Jah. Rasta has never been strictly defined, but it continues to exist it pockets all over the world, though mainly in Jamaica. The demise and common man's death of Haile Selassie in 1974 discouraged some believers, and Rastafarians have never been liked by the authorities due to its endorsement of marijuana and its excitation of violence. Nevertheless, Rastafarians continue to follow the word of Jah: "ever-loving, ever-fearful, ever-sure as Selassie



I the First." Rasta World Day Without Sense.

The prime basic belief of the Rastafarians is that Haile Selassie is the living God for the black race. Selassie, whose previous name was Ras Tafari, was the black Emperor of Ethiopia. According to Rastafarian philosophy, the scriptures phrophecied him as the one with "the hair of whose head was like wool (matted hair of a black man), whose feet were like unto burning brass (black skin)". Rastas believe that Selassie was the Jesus that Christianity speaks of; that the white man tricked the world into believing that he was a White man.

Many Rastas do not believe Haile Selassie I is dead. They believed that it was a trick of the media to try and bring their faith down because Rastas believe that true Rastas are immortal. To compensate for his death they believe that his atoms spread through out the world and became part of new babies, therefore, his life is never ending. The Rastafarian name for God is Jah.


Ethiopia (Heaven or Zion)

Ethiopia specifically, African in general, is considered the Rastas' heaven on earth. It is also referred to as Zion. There is no afterlife or hell as Christianity believes. The Rastas feel that their ancestors did something to offend Jah which brought them into an exile of slavery in the Western World such as the Caribbean.

Babylon

Babylon is the Rastafarian term for the white political power structure that has been holding the black race down for centuries. In the past, the Rastas see that blacks were held down physicaly by the shackles of slavery. In the present, Rastas feel that blacks are still held down through poverty, illiteracy, inequality, and trickery by the white man. The effort of the Rastas is to try to remind blacks of their heritage and have them stand up against this Babylon.

Return to Africa

The Rasta's believe that Jah will send the signal and help finance the blacks exodus back to Ethiopian, their homeland. Any news from Ethiopia was taken very seriously as a warning to get ready to leave. The belief stems from Marcus Garvey's theme, "Back to Africa". Although Selassie's death came before this was possible, it did succeed in turning blacks desire to look towards Africa as their roots.

Ganja (Marijuana)

Ganja, or better known to non-Rastas as Marijuana, is used for religious purposes for the Rastafarians. They find its use written in the Bible in Psalms 104:14, "He causeth the grass for the cattle, and herb for the service of man". The use of this herb is very extensive among the Rastas not only for spiritual purposes as in their Nyabingi celebration, but also for medicinal purposes for colds and such. Other names for it are Iley, callie, and holy herb. Following are a few of the many Biblical texts that Rastas embrace as reasons God, or Jah, gave them the use of the herb:

". . . thou shalt eat the herb of the field " (Genesis 3:18)

". . . eat every herb of the land " (Exodus 10:12)

"Better is a dinner of herb where love is, than a stalled ox and hatred therewith" (Proverbs 15:17)

He Causeth the Grass to Grow for the Cattle, and Herb for the Service of Man (Psalm 104:14)

Food

The true Rasta eats only I-tal food. This is special food never touches chemicals or is natural and not in cans. This food is cooked, but served in the rawest form possible; without salts, preservatives, or condiments. Many Rastas are therefore vegetarians. Those who do eat meant are forbidden to eat pig because they are the scavengers of the earth. Fish is a staple I-tal food, however, not crabs, lobster, and shrimp, for these are the scavengers of the sea. The fish they eat must be small, not more than twelve inches long. Drinking preferences rest with anything that is herbal, such as tea. Liquor, milk, coffee, and soft
drinks are viewed as unnatural. The term I-tal is rapidly taking hold in the consumer industry in Jamaica.

Red, Black and Green

One of the more obvious symbols of the Rastafarians are the colors. These are red, black, and green. These colors were taken from the Garvey movement. The color red stands for the Church Triumphant which is the church of the Rastas. It also symbolises the blood that martyrs have shed in the history of the Rastas and the black struggle for liberation. The black represents the color of Africans. Green represents the beauty and vegetation of Ethiopia, the promised land. Yellow is also sometimes added to represent the wealth of their homeland.

Dreadlocks

The dreadlocks on a Rastas head also contains symbolism. This symbolizes the Rastas roots, contrasting the straight, blond look of the white man and establishment. It not only shows their roots, but it is supported in the Bible: Leviticus 21:5, "They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in the flesh". The way the hair grows comes to represent the symbol of the Lion of Judah (explained further down). This has also come to symbolize priesthood and naturality.

Lion of Judah

The Lion of Judah represents Haile Selassie, the Conqueror. It represents the King of Kings as a lion is the king of all beasts. Others believe that it represents the male majority of the movement. Selassie wore a Lion of Judah ring that was given to Bob Marley at the time of Selassie's death. The where-abouts of the ring is unknown because it disappeared after Marley's death.

I and I

The expression "I and I" is frequently heard among Rasta talk. What it means is that no person is priviledged than another in the basic truth of life. All people are totally equal. This is why many times Rastas will opt to use "I and I" instead of "you and I" because they believe that all people are bound together by the one god, Jah.

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The War speech

"This is the ultimatum presented to us: secure the conditions whereby men will entrust their security to a larger entity, or risk annihilation; persuade men that their salvation rests in the subordination of national and local interests to the interests of humanity, or endanger man's future. These are the objectives, yesterday unobtainable, today essential, which we must labor to achieve. Until this is accomplished, mankind's future remains hazardous and permanent peace a matter for speculation.

"There is no single magic formula, no one simple step, no words, whether written into the Organization's Charter or into a treaty between states, which can automatically guarantee to us what we seek. Peace is a day-to-day problem, the product of a multitude of events and judgments. Peace is not an "is", it is a "becoming." We cannot escape the dreadful possibility of catastrophe by miscalculation. But we can reach the right decisions on the myriad subordinate problems which each new day poses, and we can thereby make our contribution and perhaps the most that can be reasonably expected of us in 1963 to the preservation of peace. It is here that the United Nations has served us - not perfectly, but well. And in enhancing the possibilities that the Organization may serve us better, we serve and bring closer our most cherished goals.

"I would mention briefly today two particular issues, which are of deep concern to all men: disarmament and the establishment of true equality among men. Disarmament has become the urgent imperative of our time. I do not say this because I equate the absence of arms to peace, or because I believe that bringing an end to the nuclear arms race automatically guarantees the peace, or because the elimination of nuclear warheads from the arsenals of the world will bring in its wake that change in attitude requisite to the peaceful settlement of disputes between nations. Disarmament is vital today, quite simply, because of the immense destructive capacity of which men dispose. Ethiopia supports the atmospheric nuclear test ban treaty as a step towards this goal, even though only a partial step. Nations can still perfect weapons of mass destruction by underground testing. There is no guarantee against the sudden, unannounced resumption of testing in the atmosphere. The real significance of the treaty is that it admits of a tacit stalemate between the nations which negotiated it, a stalemate which recognizes the blunt, unavoidable fact that none would emerge from the total destruction which would be the lot of all in a nuclear war, a stalemate which affords us and the United Nations a breathing space in which to act. Here is our opportunity and our challenge. If the nuclear powers are prepared to declare a truce, let us seize the moment to strengthen the institutions and procedures which will serve as the means for the pacific settlement of disputes among men. Conflicts between nations will continue to arise. The real issue is whether they are to be resolved by force, or by resort to peaceful methods and procedures, administered by impartial institutions. This very Organization itself is the greatest such institution, and it is in a more powerful United Nations that we seek, and it is here that we shall find, the assurance of a peaceful future.

"Were a real and effective disarmament achieved and the funds now spent in the arms race devoted to the amelioration of man's state; were we to concentrate only on the peaceful uses of nuclear knowledge, how vastly and in how short a time might we change the conditions of mankind. This should be our goal. When we talk of the equality of man, we find, also, a challenge and an opportunity; a challenge to breathe new life into the ideals enshrined in the Charter, an opportunity to bring men closer to freedom and true equality. and thus, closer to a love of peace.

"The goal of the equality of man which we seek is the antithesis of the exploitation of one people by another with which the pages of history and in particular those written of the African and Asian continents, speak at such length. Exploitation, thus viewed, has many faces. But whatever guise it assumes, this evil is to be shunned where it does not exist and crushed where it does. It is the sacred duty of this Organization to ensure that the dream of equality is finally realised for all men to whom it is still denied, to guarantee that exploitation is not reincarnated in other forms in places whence it has already been banished. As a free Africa has emerged during the past decade, a fresh attack has been launched against exploitation, wherever it still exists. And in that interaction so common to history, this in turn, has stimulated and encouraged the remaining dependent peoples to renewed efforts to throw off the yoke which has oppressed them and its claim as their birthright the twin ideals of liberty and equality. This very struggle is a struggle to establish peace, and until victory is assured, that brotherhood and understanding which nourish and give life to peace can be but partial and incomplete. In the United States of America, the administration of President Kennedy is leading a vigorous attack to eradicate the remaining vestige of racial discrimination from this country. We know that this conflict will be won and that right will triumph. In this time of trial, these efforts should be encouraged and assisted, and we should lend our sympathy and support to the American Government today.


"Last May, in Addis Ababa, I convened a meeting of Heads of African States and Governments. In three days, the thirty-two nations represented at that Conference demonstrated to the world that when the will and the determination exist, nations and peoples of diverse backgrounds can and will work together in unity, to the achievement of common goals and the assurance of that equality and brotherhood which we desire.

"On the question of racial discrimination, the Addis Ababa Conference taught, to those who will learn, this further lesson: That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained; And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed; Until bigotry and prejudice and malicious and inhuman self-interest have been replaced by understanding and tolerance and good-will; Until all Africans stand and speak as free beings, equal in the eyes of all men, as they are in the eyes of Heaven; Until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We Africans will fight, if necessary, and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.

"The United Nations has done much, both directly and indirectly to speed the disappearance of discrimination and oppression from the earth. Without the opportunity to focus world opinion on Africa and Asia which this Organization provides, the goal, for many, might still lie ahead, and the struggle would have taken far longer. For this, we are truly grateful. But more can be done. The basis of racial discrimination and colonialism has been economic, and it is with economic weapons that these evils have been and can be overcome. In pursuance of resolutions adopted at the Addis Ababa Summit Conference, African States have undertaken certain measures in the economic field, which, if adopted by all member states of the United Nations, would soon reduce intransigence to reason. I ask, today, for adherence to these measures by every nation represented here that is truly devoted to the principles enunciated in the Charter. I do not believe that Portugal and South Africa are prepared to commit economic or physical suicide if honorable and reasonable alternatives exist. I believe that such alternatives can be found. But I also know that unless peaceful solutions are devised, counsels of moderation and temperance will avail for naught; and another blow will have been dealt to this Organization which will hamper and weaken still further its usefulness in the struggle to ensure the victory of peace and liberty over the forces of strife and oppression.

"Here, then, is the opportunity presented to us. We must act while we can, while the occasion exists to exert those legitimate pressures available to us, lest time run out and resort be had to less happy means. Does this Organization today possess the authority and the will to act? And if it does not, are we prepared to clothe it with the power to create and enforce the rule of law? Or is the Charter a mere collection of words, without content and substance, because the essential spirit is lacking? The time in which to ponder these questions is all too short. The pages of history are full of instances in which the unwanted and the shunned nonetheless occurred because men waited to act until too late. We can brook no such delay. If we are to survive, this Organization must survive. To survive, it must be strengthened. Its executive must be vested with great authority. The means for the enforcement of its decisions must be fortified, and, if they do not exist, they must be devised. Procedures must be established to protect the small and the weak when threatened by the strong and the mighty. All nations that fulfill the conditions of membership must be admitted and allowed to sit in this assemblage. Equality of representation must be assured in each of its organs.

"The possibilities which exist in the United Nations to provide the medium whereby the hungry may be fed, the naked clothed, the ignorant instructed, must be seized on and exploited for the flower of peace is not sustained by poverty and want. To achieve this requires courage and confidence. The courage, I believe, we possess. The confidence must be created, and to create confidence we must act courageously.

"The great nations of the world would do well to remember that in the modern age even their own fates are not wholly in their hands. Peace demands the united efforts of us all. Who can foresee what spark might ignite the fuse? It is not only the small and the weak who must scrupulously observe their obligations to the United Nations and to each other. Unless the smaller nations are accorded their proper voice in the settlement of the world's problems, unless the equality which Africa and Asia have struggled to attain is reflected in expanded membership in the institutions which make up the United Nations, confidence will come just that much harder.

"Unless the rights of the least of men are as assiduously protected as those of the greatest, the seeds of confidence will fall on barren soil. The stake of each one of us is identical - life or death. We all wish to live. We all seek a world in which men are freed of the burdens of ignorance, poverty, hunger and disease. And we shall all be hard-pressed to escape the deadly rain of nuclear fall-out should catastrophe overtake us.

"When I spoke at Geneva in 1936, there was no precedent for a head of state addressing the League of Nations. I am neither the first, nor will I be the last head of state to address the United Nations, but only I have addressed both the League and this Organization in this capacity. The problems that confront us today are, equally, unprecedented. They have no counterparts in human experience. Men search the pages of history for solutions, for precedents, but there are none. This, then, is the ultimate challenge. Where are we to look for our survival, for the answers to the questions which have never before been posed? We must look, first, to Almighty God, Who has raised man above the animals and endowed him with intelligence and reason. We must put our faith in Him, that He will not desert us or permit us to destroy humanity, which He created in His image. And we must look into ourselves, into the depth of our souls. We must become something we have never been and for which our education and experience and environment have ill-prepared us. We must become bigger than we have been, more courageous, greater in spirit, larger in outlook. We must become members of a new race, overcoming petty prejudice, owing our ultimate allegiance not to nations but to our fellow men within the human community."

October 6, 1963

One of the most important events in the RasTafarian calendar is the Anniversary of the Coronation of Emperor Haile Selassie I. This event took place on the 2nd November 1930.

His Imperial Majesty broke with trodition by delaying the ceremony for some time after the death of the previous ruler, Queen Zawditu.

The reasons for this are described by His Majesty in His autobiography:

"On the 17th Maskaram 1909 (27th September 1916) I was chosen heir to throne and regent, with Queen Zawditu occupying the throne; and when I had patiently carried out the work of government, for fourteen years, in my office of regent plenipotentiary, Queen Zawditu died on 24th Magabit 1922 ( 2nd April 1930) and, consequently, on the morrow I was proclaimed Emperor and assumed the throne.
"As regards the succession to throne and crown, we have read in history that, at a time when Ethiopia lived in isolation and before she had established relations with foreign countries, the prevailing custom had been, at the demise of the Emperor, for his death often to remain carefully unannounced. They would then place his son and heir on the throne and crown him immediately that very day. Only after the son's reign and coronation had been announced by proclamation, would they give a ceremonial burial to the dead King.

"At other times, at the demise of the Emperor, the officers of the royal household would take him clandestinely and bury him, before anyone could hear about it, and on the morrow they would place his son and heir on the throne; after they had conducted the royal installation service and crowned him, the death of the father and the new reign of the son would be announced by proclamation at the same time.

But now that Ithiopia had concluded treaties of commerce and friendship with twelve foreign governments, had entered the League of Nations, and had established firm friendly relations, We were convinced that it was proper - in accordance with the practice of the most civilized governments in the case of their coronations - to invite to Our coronation the countries which had set up legations and consulates in Ithiopia. But as it would require a long time to dispatch the letters of invitation and to await the arrival of the delegates, as well as to make all the necessary preparations for the coronation, We arranged for the ceremony to be postponed for seven months."

"My Life and Ethiopia's Progress, Autobiography of Haile Selassie I " - Page 171-3


The ceremony also broke with trodition in that the Empress was crowned on the same day as the Emperor and not three days later.

The Coronation of H.I.M. Emperor Haile Selassie I
I Timothy, 1983 Children of Judah Pub. Co.
"The invited foreign envoys begin to arrive around October18, from such places as England, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, the Netherlands, Japan, Egypt, France, U.S.A., Germany, Greece, Turkey, and Poland. Following ancient tradition, 49 bishops and priests in groups of seven, in seven corners of the cathedral, chant continually nine Psalms of David for seven days and nights prior to the coronation.

"On November 1, the eve of the coronation, the Emperor inaugurates a statue of the great Menelik II. The honor of unveiling goes to the Duke of Gloucester, the envoy of the King of England. The same evening, the imperial vestments and ornaments are taken in a great parade to the royal church of St George and consigned to the Archbishop who prays over them all night. The cathedral of St. George is a magnificent structure built during the reign of Menelik II and was the scene of the crowning of Empress Zawditu in 1916. His imperial Majesty and His family enter the church at midnight for a night of prayer.

"More the 700 guests and officials are in attendance on November 2, 1930, to witness this ancient Hebraic-Christian coronation ceremony. Lion-maned chieftains are interspersed among the foreign guests and dignitaries, each according to rank and station. Hundreds of priests join the original group, resplendent in their colorful ceremonial robes, bearing crosses and censers. Before the royal ritual begins, His Majesty is approached by the Archbishop, His Holiness Abuna Kyrillos, with a Holy Bible bound in gold, and is asked to pledge the following four-part oath:

"To strengthen and defend the orthodox faith, and to keep, without disturbance, the laws and ordinances which the Orthodox Church has laid down

"To act with consideration for the interests of the people according to law as well as with kindness and patience

"To safeguard the entire Ethiopian realm and people in accordance with the established law and the ordinances of the Council

"To assist with the establishment of schools in Ethiopia where secular and spiritual education would be developed and the gospels would be preached"
The Emperor then affirms verbally and in writing that He is willing to fulfill His duties as ruler."

"Next, the Abuna recites the prayer of the covenant, after which the choir with the drum and harp accompaniment chants the 48th Psalm. During this Interval, abbots from various monasteries bring the royal articles one by one, hand them to the six bishops, who were assigned by the Archbishop to the coronation service, and the bishops in turn pass the articles to the Abuna to be blessed. The objects are returned to the respective bishops who then present them to His Imperial Majesty, reciting appropriate lines. With each of the seven ornaments, His Imperial Majesty is anointed on the head, brow, and shoulders with seven differently scented ointments of ancient prescription. He is first vested with a gold sword along with this exhortation: "May you be enabled with this sword to punish the wicked and protect the righteous."

"This is followed with the bestowal of the Imperial scepter of ivory and gold, and the golden orb (globe), a diamond incrusted ring, two traditional lances (spears) filigreed in gold, the imperial vestments, and finally, anointing His head with oil, the Abuna places upon H.I.M. the triple crown. The Archbishop concludes the regal anointing with the words: "That God may make this crown a crown of sanctity and glory. That, by the grace and the blessings which we have given, you may have an unshaken faith and a pure heart, in order that you may inherit the crown eternal. So be it." The Crown Prince, Asfa Wossen, removes his coronet and on bended knee pledges his allegiance, service, and support.

"The Empress and her ladies of honor then enter the sanctuary from the right side and she takes her throne to the right of His Majesty for her coronation. It has been determined that the Abuna is to place the crown and ring upon Her Majesty, without the regal anointing, on the same day of the Emperor's coronation. This not only breaks tradition, but sets a historical precedent as the earlier practice was for her to be crowned on the third day after the coronation of the Emperor, in the palace and not in the church.

"The final part of the ceremony is a tour of the cathedral by their Imperial Majesties, escorted by the bishops and priests, the princes and dignitaries, assistants and others, carrying palm branches and chanting, "Blessed be the King of Israel" The procession continues onto the Addis Ababa streets, where throngs of well wishers wildly cheer the Royal Family. The event draws to a close with Their Majesties visiting the other churches in the city to give thanks and praise."

(from Reggae & African Beat 12/1983)


His Majesty speaks on leadership

"We all know that the need for good leadership in every walk of life is much greater today than ever before. Every aspect of living demands guiding hands, business, the professions, fine arts, the mechanical arts. And all of you young people who have been given the opportunity of an advanced education will in the future be called upon to shoulder, in varying degrees, the responsibilities to leading and serving the nation.

"It is important however to remember that leadership does not mean domination. The world is always well supplied with people who wish to rule and dominate others. The true leader is of a different sort. He seeks effective activity which has a truly beneficent purpose. He inspires others to follow in his wake, and holding aloft the torch of wisdom leads the way for society to realize its genuinely great aspirations.

"You have learnt from your study of history that the story of nations is often told in terms of the accomplishment of individuals. In every significant event in history you will find a courageous and determined leader, an inspiring goal or objective, and an adversary who sought to spoil his efforts.

"In any normal society everyone has some opportunity to show himself as a leader, Even the mechanic or clerk who has an assistant assigned to him, not to speak of the doctor with all his helpers the officer who commands his troops, is a leader. Within his own sphere each has the same opportunity for showing ability and the same potential satisfactions as has the leader of a Government. The leader is marked out by his individual craftsmanship, his sensibility and insight, his initiative and energy.

"Leaders are people who raise the standards by which they judge themselves, and by which they are willing to be judged. The goal chosen, the objective selected, the requirements imposed are not merely for their followers alone. They develop with consummate energy and devotion their own skill and knowledge in order to reach the standards they themselves have set. This wholehearted acceptance of the demands imposed by ever-higher standards is the basis of all human progress. A love of high quality we must remember is essential in a leader.
"Dependability is another requirement in a leader. To be dependable is to be willing to accept the responsibility and to carry it out faithfully. A leader will always be willing to take counsel from his people. But will have to often act on what his own mind tells him is right. This demands that the leader has trained himself out of any inordinate fear of making mistakes.

"To embark successfully in a career involving leadership demands a courageous and determined spirit. Once a person has decided upon his life's work and is assured that in doing the work for which he is best endowed and equipped he is filling a vital need, what he then needs is faith and integrity, coupled with a courageous spirit so that no longer preferring himself to the fulfillment of his task he may address himself to the problems he must solve in order to be effective. "One mark of the great leader is that he feels sufficiently secure to devote his thought and attention to the well being of his subordinates and the perfection of his task, rather than being constantly worried about the approval of disapproval of others.

"He who would be a leader must pay the price in self-discipline and moral restraint. This entails the correction and improvement of personal character, the checking of passions and desires, and an exemplary control of one's bodily needs and drives.

"Leaders have to submit themselves to a stricter self-discipline, and develop a more exemplary moral character than is expected of others. To be first in place one must be first in merit as well.
"It should not surprise us then to find that the greater number of acknowledged leaders have been people who trained themselves in the art of discipline and obedience. He who has not learned to render prompt and willing service to others will find it difficult to win and keep the goodwill and co-operation of his subordinates.

"Further a leader must possess initiative which is the creative ability to think in new ways and do new things. The leader has always to stay ahead. He cannot afford to set up a procedure and then fold his hands and linger lazily watching it work. He cannot be content merely to see new trends and take advantage of them. He must keep his imagination vividly alive so as to originate ideas and start trends.

"A word of warning is in order here. To help one's subordinates or dependents at the cost of harm to the public is tantamount to sacrilege and blasphemy. It is unfortunate that many in positions of leadership both great and small have been found guilty of such practices.

"A good leader is devoted to his work and will willingly forego even the demands of sleep to see its accomplishment. This does not mean that he is impetuous. On the other hand, he maintains a balance between emotional drive and sound thinking.

"His labors, which sometimes appear excessive, derive from his firm realization that unless a man undertakes more than he can possibly do he will never be able to do all he can do. It is his enthusiasm that stimulates his energy.

No matter what our point of departure in speaking of leadership we reach the inescapable conclusion that the art of leadership consists in the ability to make people want to work for you when they are really under no obligation to do so.
The true leader is one who realizes by faith that he is an instrument in the hands of God and educates himself to be a guide and inspirer of the nobler sentiments and aspirations to the people. He will kindle interest, teach, aid, correct and inspire. Those whom he leads will co-operate with him in maintaining discipline for the good of the group. He will instruct his followers in the goals towards which to strive, and create in them a sense of mutual effort for attaining the goal.

THE CORONATION OF EMPEROR RAS TAFARI

" Last Sunday, a great ceremony took place at Addis Abbaba [Ababa], the capital of Abyssinia. It was the coronation of the new Emperor of Ethiopia - Ras Tafari. From reports and expectations, the scene was one of great splendour, and will long be remembered by those who were present.

"Several of the leading nations of Europe sent representatives to the coronation, thereby paying their respects to a rising Negro nation that is destined to play a great part in the fiiture history of the world.

"Abyssinia is the land of the blacks and we are glad to learn that even though Europeans have been trying to impress the Abyssinians that they are not belonging to the Negro Race, they have returned the retort that they are, and that they are proud to be so.

"Ras Tafari has travelled to Europe and America and is therefore no stranger to European hypocrisy and methods; he, therefore, must be regarded as a kind of a modern Emperor, and from what we understand and know of him, he intends to introduce modern methods and systems into his country. Already he has started to recruit from different sections of the world competent men in different branches of science to help to develop his country to the position that she should occupy among the other nations of the world.
"We do hope that Ras Tafari will live long to carry out his wonderful intentions. From what we have heard and what we do know, he is ready and willing to extend the hand of invitation to any Negro who desires to settle in his kingdom. We know of many who are gone to Abyssinia and who have given good report of the great possibilities there, which they are striving to take advantage of.

" The Psalmist prophesied that Princes would come out of Egypt and Ethiopia would stretch forth her hands unto God. We have no doubt that the time is now come. Ethiopia is now really stretching forth her hands. This great kingdom of the East has been hidden for many centuries, but gradually she is rising to take a leading place in the world and it is for us of the Negro race to assist in every way to hold up the hand of Emperor Ras Tafari.

Words of Marcus Garvey printed in the Blackman Kingston, November 8th 1930.

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5. Enter the Dreadlocks

The most outstanding characteristic of the Dreadlocks is, of course, his hair, a sacred and inalienable part of his identity. It defines his status. The longer his locks the greater his standing as a professor of the faith. He affectionately calls his hair his crown, comparing it to the real crown of his king, Selassie, and sometimes to the mane of the lion, a symbol of male strength.

The Dreadlocks reform trend within the Rastafari movement set out to purge the movement of many of the Revivalisms that had been retained in ritual and organizational life, and in doing so to challenge many of the social and religious norms taken for granted. Their matted hair was a symbol of this. 1 What will emerge from the analysis of this process of reform, however, is that the Dreadlocks only went halfway in their elimination of Revival retentions, impelled though they were by their hatred for any form of accommodation with society. The result of their reformation was a mixture of innovations and traditional elements from Revivalism.

The early preachers of the new religion concentrated on the question of the identity of God. All informants confirm that this_______


1 The meaning of hair in Jamaican culture with particular reference to the dreadlocks phenomenon is treated in my forthcoming essay entitled "The Phallus and the Outcast" in Barry Chevannes, Rastafari and Other African-Caribbean World Views (forthcoming).

6. The Bobo Dread

Thus far I have been tracing the peasant influences in the Rastafari, first by determining the social origins of some of its earliest converts and, second, by tracing the manifestations of the Revival world outlook that were discernible in the personal and organizational lives of these informants. From this excursion into oral history I drew the conclusion that Rastafari represented continuity with the Revival mainstream, even while it also represented a new beginning. In the preceding chapter we saw that the further break with Revivalism authored by the Dreadlocks was not a complete one. In this chapter and the rest that follow I present ethnographic data that show that the general argument may be sustained with respect to the present.

Of all the contemporary autonomous groups that together make up what we know as the Rastafari movement, the Bobo exhibit the highest intensity of Revivalism. They are Dreadlocks, but because they differ from the mainstream organizationally and in other respects, I treat them separately in this chapter. Unlike other Dreadlocks, most Bobo live together in a commune, organized in the tradition of Howell, and circumscribed by rituals. Outwardly, their separation from the rest of the Dreadlocks is marked by the wearing of tightly wrapped turbans, sometimes long, flowing black or white robes, and attractively handmade sandals. Even their form of greeting is different from that of other Dreadlocks.

The Bobo strike a compromise with the existing society by accentuating respect for certain values flaunted by the Dreadlocks in the Youth Black Faith tradition....

7. The Era of the Dreadlocks

Many of the leading exponents of Rastafari throughout the 1960s were schooled in the tradition of the Youth Black Faith. The breakup of the Youth Black Faith was due to factors such as the imprisonment of some of its leading figures and demographic pressures that began to force many people to other areas of the city, such as Tower Hill and Majesty Pen, also known as "Back To." The organization taking its place was a loose one, known in the 1970s as the Coptics, or Jah Rastafari Hola Coptic Church. 1 It differed from the Youth Black Faith in its new leadership, in that only Dreadlocks belonged to it, where initially Dreadlocks were only one part of the Youth Black Faith, and in the virtual absence of women except as spouses of some Dreads. In all other essentials they were the same: militant separatists, dreadful, nyabinghi, inclined toward celibacy, acephalous, and more democratic in organization than those groups that united under a single leader.

The organization of the Coptics is called a "house," a concept originally used during the life of the Youth Black Faith to describe the reform movement. The concept of house, as used today, reflects more than a matter of tradition. It is indicative of the open form of Dreadlocks organization. As long as one cultivates dreadlocks, one may be called a member of the house, no matter what other organization one may be a member of The main function of this kind of quasi-organization is that it makes possible broad solidarity among the mainstream...
____________________


1 Not to be confused with the Miami-based sect discussed in chapter 10.

8. Word, Sound, and Power

A major difference between Dreadlocks and traditional Rastafari was the aggressive posture that the Dreadlocks adopted toward the wider non-Rastafari world. In theory, all non-Rastafari are a part of "Babylon," a part of the oppressive order, and are therefore on a personal level likely to be subject to verbal and other nonviolent forms of aggression such as the tense facial expression commonly referred to as "screw face." I already alluded to this aggression in chapter 6 when describing the opinion Bull Bay non-Rastafari residents had of the Dreadlocks. In the collective context, however, verbal aggression becomes a ritual drama, a performance in which the actors assume symbolic roles.

One of the main avenues through which ritualized aggression takes place is at formal duties or at formal meetings of the elders. The object is by the very nature of the ritual usually someone sympathetic enough to the Rastafari to be allowed to participate in it, but most definitely neither a Rastafari nor a Dreadlocks and hence a part of Babylon; it is a position therefore of liminal ambiguity. In the ritual context my persona was the university (where I worked), and therefore the government ("For anything the University tell the Government, the Government must do it, for it is the seat of knowledge!"). A sympathetic cleric like Father Joseph Owens ( 1976) would represent Rome, and a white American would repre sent the United States--all aspects of the same Babylon. The ritual is not an induction that one undergoes once and for all, but rather may be repeated as the Dreadlocks see fit. Dreadlocks, who outside of the ritual context...

Rastafari is a movement of Black people who know Africa as the birthplace of Mankind and the throne of Emperor Haile Selassie I -- a 20th Century Manifestation of God who has lighted our pathway towards righteousness, and is therefore worthy of reverence.

The Rastafari movement grew out of the darkest depression that the descendants of African slaves in Jamaica have ever lived in -- the stink and crumbling shacks of zinc and cardboard that the tattered remnants of humanity built on the rotting garbage of the dreadful Dungle on Kingston's waterfront. Out of this filth and slime arose a sentiment so pure, so without anger, so full of love, the Philosophy of the Rastafari faith.

Freedom of Spirit, Freedom from Slavery, and Freedom of Africa, was its cry.

Religions always reflect the social and geographical environment out of which they emerge, and Jamaican Rastafarianism is no exception: for example, the use of marijuana as a sacrament and aid to meditation is logical in a country where a particularly strain of 'herb' grows freely. Emerging out of the island of Jamaica in the later half of this century, the religious/political movement known as Rastafarianism has gained widespread exposure in the Western world.

Rasta, as it is more commonly called, has its roots in the teachings of Jamaican black nationalist Marcus Garvey, who in the 1930s preached a message of black self empowerment, and initiated the "Back to Africa" movement. Which called for all blacks to return to their ancestral home, and more specifically Ethiopia. He taught self reliance "at home and abroad" and advocated a "back to Africa" consciousness, awakening black pride and denouncing the white mans eurocentric woldview, colonial indoctrination that caused blacks to feel shame for their African heritage. "Look to Africa", said Marcus Garvey in 1920, "when a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is at hand". Many thought the prophecy was fulfilled when in 1930, Ras Tafari, was crowned emperor Haile Selassie 1 of Ethiopia and proclaimed "King of Kings, Lord of Lords, and the conquering lion of the Tribe of Judah". Haile Selassie claimed to be a direct descendant of King David, the 225th ruler in an unbroken line of Ethiopian Kings from the time of Solomon and Sheba. He and his followers took great pride in being black and wanted to regain the black heritage that was lost by loosing faith and straying from the holy ways.

Rastafarians live a peaceful life, needing little material possessions and devote much time to contemplating the scriptures. They reject the white man's world, as the new age Babylon of greed and dishonesty. Proud and confident Rastas even though they are humble will stand up for their rights. Rastas let their hair grow natually into dreadlocks, in the image of the lion of Judah. Six out of ten Jamaicans are believed to be Rastafarians or Rastafarian sympathizers. The total following is believed to be over 1000 000 worldwide. 1975 to the present has been the period of the most phenomenal growth for the Rastafarian Movement. This growth is largely attributed to Bob Marley, reggae artist, and the worldwide acceptance of reggae as an avenue of Rastafarian self-expression. Marley became a prophet of Rastafarianism in 1975. The movement spread quickly in the Caribbean and was hugely attractive to the local black youths, many of whom saw it as an extension of their adolescent rebellion from school and parental authority. With it came some undesirable elements, but all true Rastas signify peace and pride and righteousness.

Ancient Judah/KUSH was Once the Light of the World; Home of the Gods and Mother of KMT (egypt)...and so it is: the Daughter can never be older than the Mother. Eurocentric archeologists are finally admiting what has been known for ages...that East Africa is the location of the Heart of Africa...the Garden of Eden...the home of first Man...of Gods in Human Form...of the original Black Madonna and Child: the "Original Eve," ...who is Mother of Human Kind. Timeless Judah, Kush, KMT Kashi (Ancient Kushitic City in India) were once known as the Homeland of the

Black Gods Who Walked Earth In Human Form.

Priest-Kings of ancient Judah-Kush/Kmt established and maintained a mystical way of life, embellished with spiritual rituals and mystical ceremonies and the belief in Eternal Life and Resurrection, which Europeans copied and call Christianity. Philosophy was born out of Europe's attempt to understand the higher wisdom of ancient Africa.

The Two Lands (Kush and KMT/Ethiopia and Egypt/Mother and Daugher) embraced the mystery of what Europeans call "The Monophysite Docterine," which is the belief that God can manifest in Flesh, or God-in-Flesh. African-centered Christianity and Eurocentric Christianity separated the Nicene Council (451 AD), because Europeans believed Christ to have two natures 1) divine and 2) human... while African-centered Christianitians (The Coptic Egyptian Church) embraced the age old wisdom that when God manifests in flesh, man is rendered a Divine Being/God-in-Flesh. The story of the man they call Jesus is the same as the ancient Kushitic/Kmetian story of a God in Flesh who also died and resurrected and is said will come again.

Atum whose Hebrew name is "Adam," was worsihpped in Ancient Egypt (Amun/AtumAmen/Amen-RA) as the God of Gods, and as the First God to to Manifest in Flesh on Earth and also as the King of Kings and Conquering Lion. In Genesis 5:5, it is written that Adam was a race of men and women, not just one man and one woman... "...male and female created He them, and blessed them and called their name Adam in the day they were created."

Amun Sacred Symbols are those of a man with a lion's head and another is of a lion walking upright like a man. This was no heathen form of idol worship, but a spiritual way of life based on the Ancient Wisdom and Ancient Mystery Teachings and quantum physics : The belief in things you cannot see.




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